Making steel from iron is the secondary refining process also known as secondary metallurgy. Steel producers increasingly manufacture high-carbon, low-carbon, structural, special alloyed and mechanical steel qualities, with high resistance, strength and purity requirements. Inferior quality of raw materials increases process difficulties due to the presence of harmful residual elements such as sulfur, phosphorous, hydrogen, non-metallic inclusion of SiO2 and Al2O3, amongst others.

These impurities can be treated and even removed using Affival’s product range for secondary metallurgy, cored wires and slag conditioners.

The application of these products comprises precise technical diagnosis, using state-of-the-art computer modelling and empiric data from in-situational use as well as follow-up by our highly qualified technicians to ensure optimum results and customer satisfaction.

Cored Wire

Wire injection using Affival cored wire is the low cost, effective process for in-ladle treatment. The cored wire is made of a low carbon steel sheath in which the powdered minerals, metals and ferroalloys are tightly encased. With the PapCal® technology, for example, the calcium in the wire is protected in a “sandwich casing” which delays heat transfer from the liquid steel. The casing is made of an inner steel strip covered by a paper insulation and an outside steel casing. The insulation allows a deeper penetration of calcium into liquid steel which gives longer reaction time and higher and consistent recovery.

Inclusion Shape Control

This includes Calcium (powder and solid), PapCal, Calcium HDx, Caltech, CaSi, CaFe and CaAlFe.

Addition and trimming

This includes Titanium, FeTi FeB, FeV, FeNb, FeMn, FeMo and Carbon.


This includes aluminum rods and is the most common deoxidizer in the steelmaking, acting like silicon but also used as a grain refiner.


This includes Nitrogen, which makes up 78% of air. It is used in the steelmaking for controlled nitride formations.

Machinability improvement

This includes Sulphur, FeS Lead Bismuth, BiMn Tellurium, TeMn, the addition of which improves the machinability by forming specific and complex inclusions.


This includes Rare Earths, Ce, La, Nd and Zirconium: highliy specialized and customized applications to attain particular steel properties.

Injectable Desulfurizing and Shape Control Products


Reliability, flexibility & Robustness. 35 years of experience culminate in the most adaptable design for secondary metallurgy


Efficiency & Compactness. 15 years development to reach the most efficient technology of surface feeding for the best TCO in the most challenging conditions

Ready to use

The product of 35 years of experience in a compact design with high performance and reliability


Accuracy & Reliability. Adapted for foundry or any application where precision & repeatability of treatment are critical


Lowest investments with compact technology. Affival’s experience concentrated in innovative design.